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Novel modeling methods for probing deep targets using 2D, 3D and

thin-sheet modeling algorithms for ground-based and airborne time-

and frequency-domain EM data

The geological evolution of Europe has resulted in the generation of a variety of mineral resources, which are essential for the sustainable economic growth of the EU. There are, however, challenges for the exploration og these mineral resources. Enhanced subsurface geological information, deposit concepts, and exploration methods are all required to realize the great unexplored potential at depth in major mining camps, but also to realize the potential that new greenfield regions can offer due to the enhanced geological knowledge.


Smart Exploration, consisting of a research and application team supported by a group of technologically advanced SMEs and mining industries, primarily focus on developing cost-effective, environmental friendly tools and methods for geophysical exploration in highly challenging brownfield areas to meet the ever increasing community (social acceptance) and environmental issues, as well as reducing the return time (from exploration to production).

As one of the project partners, HGG is developing effective electromagnetic modelling and imaging techniques providing full 3D view of the subsurface conductivity structures. We are developing inversion of airborne transient electromagnetic data in 2D and 3D. The 2D code is based on a full 3D forward calculation but with a 2D resistivity structure. The forward algorithm uses a tetrahedral or octree finite element formulation while the inversion is a simple octree structural mesh. We are also developing full 3D inversion for ground based multi receiver, few transmitter loop systems.

  • SkyTEM system
  • UAV controlled-source EM
  • Digital-based systems for slimhole seismic measurements
  • Development of new geophysical instrument such as the ground-based frequency domain electromagnetic system


  • Uppsala University
  • Geological Sur­vey of Sweden
  • Nordic Iron Ore
  • Ludvika Kommun
  • GeoVista
  • MIC Nordic, BitSim
  • Amkvo


  • Yara
  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Turku


  • HGG, Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University
  • SkyTEM Surveys

The Netherlands:

  • Delft University of Technology
  • Seismic Mechatronics
  • EAGE


  • Polytechnic University of Turin


  • National Laboratory of Energy and Geology
  • Somincor


  • Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg


  • Institute of Geophysics
  • Polish Academy of Sciences
  • Geopartner
  • Proxis


  • National Tech­nical University of Athens
  • Helas Gold
  • Seismotech
  • Delfi Distomon